Here you find information about how different car manufacturers all wheel drive AWD and four wheel drive 4WD functions.
You will also find what engines is possible with different types of systems from different manufacturers and what year updates was made. You will for example find all wheel drive sedans, 4 wheel drive suv and 4x4 vehicles.
Four wheel drive uses the petrol powered engine to drive the rear wheels via a 7-speed DKG gearbox. Front wheels is powered with a electric engine.
What is the difference between all wheel drive AWD and
four wheel drive 4WD?
AWD VS 4WD
Permanent 4WD explained
Power is always sent to all four wheels. Can be used everywhere on every surface. Developed for everyday use. Mercedes G-klass and Land Rover are two examples that uses this type.
Part time 4WD explained
Front or rear wheel drive with the option to make it 4WD with a switch or similar. When 4WD is looked its not recommended to use for regular driving. It should only be used for adverse terrain conditions. Jeep Wrangler is one example of this type.
All four wheels always have power, the difference from 4WD is that is not equal distributed to all the wheels. It could be like Quattro´s version which sends 60% to the front wheels and 40% to the rear, if a wheel loose traction it automatically send the power to the wheels with most grip. Volvo XC70, XC90 and Toyota RAV4 is three examples that uses this type.
xDrive is connected to the ABS and DSC systems. In the case that wheelspin or directional instability still occurs while xDrive is or has been modulating the torque split, DSC will brake independent wheels to regain traction and improve directional stability without driver intervention.
Porsche 991 Turbo all wheel drive uses a updated PTS system from Porsche 997. Most of the power goes to the rear wheels but can instantly (maximum 100 milliseconds) send more power to the front wheels.
The Mini Cooper Countryman is on normal driving conditions front wheel drive. If a the car feels a wheel slip it sends or redirect the power to the other wheels with more grip.
3 Series Touring
Developed by BMW and its called xDrive. It constantly sends power to all four wheels. in normal conditions like city or highway driving 40% of the power goes to the front wheels and 60% to the rear.
Subaru XV use a similar system as other car from the same brand. Under extreme conditions the torque is divided by 50/50, in "normal" conditions its 60% to the front and 40% to the rear.
Audi A1 use a four wheel drive system from HALDEX. Almost all the torque is sent to the front wheels in normal conditions.